The Law Office of Kurt H King

January 31, 2013

The “State” of the Insolvent Second Injury Fund in Missouri–Skirvin v. Treasurer of the State of Missouri

Missouri’s Second Injury Fund pays part of the disability of injured workers who suffer re-injury.  The theory being that otherwise employers would be far less likely to hire workers that have already been hurt.  Since employers presumably pay less on work comp claims than they would if injured workers could sue for their injuries in circuit courts with jury trials, punitive damages and the whole nine yards, lawmakers have saddled employers with the cost of funding the Fund so it can pay the “load factor” part of permanent partial work comp awards, as well as on permanent total disability awards.

A few years ago, in an effort to reduce the costs of work comp insurance for Missouri businesses, lawmakers capped the “surcharge” at 3%–thus the most a business would have to pay into the State for the Fund each year would be no more than 3% of the total amount of its net work comp insurance premiums.  This effort to appease business backfired as that amount of surcharge falls far short of an adequate supply of money to the Fund for payment of the continuous flow of work comp awards against the Fund.

By and large, due to lack of funding, the Fund has not paid any Permanent Total Disability awards dated after March 6, 2011.  There are said to be at least sixty cases on file in courts throughout Missouri seeking orders that the Fund pay the injured worker the amount awarded that worker by the Division of Workers Compensation.  One of those cases recently reached the Western District of the Missouri Court Appeals, where it was decided by Judges Ahuja, Howard, and Martin.  The case is Skirvin v. Treasurer of the State of Missouri, WD75541 (opinion filed 01.22.2013).  At the trial which led to this appeal, Skirvin won an order (on a writ of mandamus) that the Fund pay the money awarded by the Division of Workers Compensation on his permanent total disability claim where the “last” part of the disability combined with  disability from previous injuries to cause the employee to be totally disabled.  The last employer picks up the tab for the “last” disability but the Fund is charged with payment for the remainder of the workers’ disability.

Having lost  at trial, the Fund appealed to the Western District.  In doing so, the Fund admitted that it is insolvent–bankrupt–and so it stopped paying permanent total injury awards as of March 6, 2011.  Evidence at trial showed that the Fund then owed $21 million but had only $6.5 million with which to pay.   Thus, the Fund was upside down $15 million.   The Fund also testified to annual income of $43 million, of which $40 million was paid out within six months, leaving only $3 million for the remaining six months.  This has been going on for nearly two years now and the hole yawns blacker and deeper.

No way the Fund can pay the past due awards pro rata as there are significant differences in how the claims affect employee Social Security, the number and amount of claims constantly fluctuates, and it simply would not be fair.  The alternate, to pay on a “first come, first serve” basis, would quickly break the bank.  Missouri’s lawmakers should have raised the legal limit on the surcharge or provided additional funding but they have not.  The economic times of late have not led to surpluses, and who wants to vote for representatives who pass laws which increase your work comp costs and cut your thin profits?

What the court of appeals decided in the main opinion by Judge Martin is that the trial court erred in ordering the Fund to pay Skirvin as the Fund lacks the money to pay him and the other claims like his.  Skirvin did not request a pro rata payment of his and similar claims and that would be nearly impossible to accomplish.  But while the court of appeals could not help Skirvin, they could send his case to the Missouri Supreme Court and so they ordered it transferred.  If that high court hears this case, it may do so expeditiously.  Meanwhile, Missouri lawmakers may realize that they must act now or the supreme court may fix things in a way that they do not like.

Judge Ahuja agreed with the transfer to the supreme court, although he would simply have reversed the trial court for the reasons that, (1) the Fund is insolvent and cannot pay all the judgments outstanding against it, and (2) Skirvin did not request  a pro rata payment.  [Maybe a request to put the Fund into receivorship is another option.]

Finally, Judge Howard in his dissent makes several good points, including that the Fund is just an account of the State of Missouri, and the State has the money or can raise it to pay the outstanding claims against the Fund.  The State also has full power to increase the surcharge or otherwise fund the Fund so that it has sufficient money to pay its debts.  So, affirm the trial court and uphold Skirvin’s order that the Fund/State of Missouri pay him what it owes him by law.

Embarrassing for a STATE to say to an injured employee, in effect–

“Hey, here is your work comp judgment and by the way the Fund is not going to pay you.  Sorry you may starve.  Hope you find a good homeless shelter or maybe your spouse can float all the bills by herself.”  Does the state let tax debt ride indefinitely when a taxpayer says, “Can’t pay you, I’m almost clear broke?”

Perhaps the Missouri Supreme Court will decide this case and turn up  the heat on our lawmakers who knew, or should have known, they were drowning the Fund and injured employees when they capped the surcharge at 3%.

Kurt H. King

Law Office of Kurt H. King, 20 E. Franklin, Liberty, Clay County, Missouri 64068


Workers’ Compensation, Personal Injury, Bankruptcy, General Litigation and other matters

September 19, 2012

How Serious Does the Previous Disability Have to Be to Hold the Second Injury Fund Liable In Missouri Workers’ Compensation Cases

On September 11, 2012, the Eastern District of the Missouri Court of Appeals handed down its decision in Salviccio v. Treasurer of the State of Missouri, As Custodian of the Second Injury Fund  (Slip Opinion ED97862), which holds that the injured employee may not stack/combine previous disabilities in order to reach the threshold which triggers possible Second Injury Fund (“SIF”) liability–except in limited situations.    The court of appeals then transferred this case to the Missouri Supreme Court due to the “general interest and importance of the issues.”  We will have to wait to see what happens at the Supreme Court, but here is a bit on where we are now on the question of whether an injured employee’s current or previous disabilities are serious enough to win against the Fund.

The Missouri statute on liability of the SIF is section 287.220.1, which sets minimum limits an employee must meet.  Boiling down considerable verbage, those limits are that each current and previous disability  must separately amount to 50 weeks or more if a Body As A Whole disability, or 15% permanent partial disability if a major extremity only.

The employee in Salviccio injured his left knee and settled the claim for 20% Permanent Partial Disability (“PPD”) at that level.  He later took his accompanying claim against the Fund to trial and won 12.3 more weeks of compensation to be paid by the Fund on the theory that the combination of all the employee’s injuries was 12.3 weeks more than the simple total of the present knee injury added to the disability from his previous disabilities.   The previous disabilities here were a 50% disability (11 weeks) at the proximal joint/22 week level for a left little finger injury, two hernias of 16 and 14 weeks respectively, and 50 weeks for his diabetes with some symptoms of paresthesia.

The employee wanted to combine all these previous disabilities for to get the maximum possible from the Fund–and the Labor and Industrial Labor Relations Commission obliged.   However, the court of appeals sided with the Fund, measuring each disability separately, and concluded that only the diabetes disability met the 50 week requirement.  Consequently, the court reduced the award against the Fund to 8.2 weeks of compensation.

Of particular interest is the little finger injury because it was rated at 50%, which exceeds the 15% required of a major threshold injury to trigger Fund liability.  However, the court of appeals found that an 11 week injury to the proximal joint on the little finger of the non-dominant left hand is simply not a “major” extremity injury.

Compare, however, the decision in Palazzolo v. Joe’s Delivery Service, 98 S.W.3d 645, 648 (Mo. Ct. App. E.D. 2003), which upheld an award against the Fund on a 15% disability at the 110 week level of the foot (the distal third).  In that case, the Fund apparently admitted that the foot may be a major extremity.  By analogy, a hand at the 175 week level would also seem to be a major extremity for these purposes.

(One wonders what the court would do with a case where the previous disability was an operation on the left wrist which left the 4th finger non-responsive due to tendon damage.   The scar and surgery occurs at the 175 week hand/wrist level but the disability lies with use of the 4th finger.)

Finally, we read in Salviccio that there is a limited scenario in which separate disabilities to the same major extremity may be stacked to meet the 15% major extremity only threshold for Fund liability.  The court notes its 2003 decision in Shipp v. Treasurer of State of Missouri, 99 S.W.3d 44, 53 (Mo. Ct. App. E.D. 2003), finding it acceptable to combine previous disability to the right wrist and right shoulder which added up to 15% disability of the right arm in the Commission’s mind, thus meeting the threshold limit triggering Fund liability.

In sum, while it seems acceptable to combine disabilities at various levels of one major extremity to implicate the Fund, it is not permissible to combine separate Body as a Whole disabilities or to merge extremity only disability with Body as a Whole disability.

Kurt H. King

Law Office of Kurt H. King, 20 E. Franklin, Liberty, Clay County, Missouri 64068; 816.781.6000

Litigation, Personal Injury, Workers’ Compensation

July 20, 2010

Missouri Workers’ Compensation–the Second Injury Fund (via Kurt’s Take on Law)

Many folks do not know that there is a Second Injury Fund in the State of Missouri that can lead to your receiving more in workers compensation benefits than would otherwise be the case. Missouri set up the Second Injury Fund (SIF) years ago to pay injured workers an extra amount of workers compensation when they have significant or substantial "old"  or prior injuries.  When the/those prior injuries (which do NOT have to be on the job injuries– … Read More

via Kurt's Take on Law

Kurt H. King
Law Office of Kurt H. King
20 E. Franklin
Liberty, Clay County, Missouri 64068

Bankruptcy, Child Custody and Support, Divorce and Modification, Family Law
Personal Injury, Workers’ Compensation

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